Francesco Cavalli, original name Pier Francesco Caletti-Bruni (born Feb. 14, 1602, Crema, Republic of Venice [Italy]—died Jan. 14, 1676, Venice), the most important Italian composer of opera in the mid-17th century. The son of Gian Battista Caletti-Bruni, he assumed the name of his Venetian patron Federico Cavalli. In December 1616 he became a singer in the choir of St. Mark's, Venice, under Claudio Monteverdi, whose opera Orfeo established opera as a permanent genre. Cavalli subsequently held various posts there, becoming maestro di cappella in 1668. During his lifetime he exercised a considerable influence on European taste. Didone (1641) is perhaps his most interesting work, but it was his Egisto, given in Paris in 1646, that initiated the rivalry between French and Italian styles. As a dramatic composer Cavalli wrote for a small string orchestra, and his operas require no trained chorus. He wrote few concerted numbers for soloists, but his works have signs of the beginnings of the formal recitative-aria technique, sometimes even with a da capo section. Compensation for the level character of his operatic music was provided by the brilliant costumes and lavish sets, without which, in spite of their dramatic power and grotesque humour, Cavalli's works are incomplete. Although performed throughout Italy, these dramma per musica were generally written especially for the public opera houses that flourished in 17th-century Venice. Twenty-seven of his 42 operas are preserved in manuscript in the library of St. Mark's, and renewed interest in Cavalli has resulted in numerous revivals, recordings, and publications of his operas. Erismena and L'Ormindo have been recorded, and various others have been excerpted and recorded.
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